- By comparing the sequence of network hops reported by a tool such as traceroute for a proxied protocol such as HTTP (port 80) with that for a non-proxied protocol such as SMTP (port 25).
- By attempting to make a connection to an IP address at which there is known to be no server. The proxy will accept the connection and then attempt to proxy it on. When the proxy finds no server to accept the connection it may return an error message or simply close the connection to the client. This difference in behavior is simple to detect. For example, most web browsers will generate a browser created error page in the case where they cannot connect to an HTTP server but will return a different error in the case where the connection is accepted and then closed.
- By serving the end-user specially programmed Adobe Flash SWF applications or Sun Java applets that send HTTP calls back to their server.
A CGI web proxy accepts target URLs using a Web form in the user’s browser window, processes the request, and returns the results to the user’s browser. Consequently, it can be used on a device or network that does not allow “true” proxy settings to be changed. The first recorded CGI proxy, named “rover” at the time but renamed in 1998 to “CGIProxy“, was developed by American computer scientist James Marshall in early 1996 for an article in “Unix Review” by Rich Morin.
The majority of CGI proxies are powered by one of CGIProxy (written in the Perl language), Glype (written in the PHP language), or PHProxy (written in the PHP language). As of April 2016, CGIProxy has received about 2 million downloads, Glype has received almost a million downloads, whilst PHProxy still receives hundreds of downloads per week. Despite waning in popularity due to VPNs and other privacy methods, as of September 2021 there are still a few hundred CGI proxies online.
Some CGI proxies were set up for purposes such as making websites more accessible to disabled people, but have since been shut down due to excessive traffic, usually caused by a third party advertising the service as a means to bypass local filtering. Since many of these users don’t care about the collateral damage they are causing, it became necessary for organizations to hide their proxies, disclosing the URLs only to those who take the trouble to contact the organization and demonstrate a genuine need.
A suffix proxy allows a user to access web content by appending the name of the proxy server to the URL of the requested content
i will be back to explain this later, but the edit button means anyone can edit it,right?
A suffix proxy allows a user to access web content by appending the name of the proxy server to the URL of the requested content (e.g. “en.wikipedia.org.SuffixProxy.com“). Suffix proxy servers are easier to use than regular proxy servers but they do not offer high levels of anonymity and their primary use is for bypassing web filters. However, this is rarely used due to more advanced web filters.
Tor onion proxy software
The Vidalia Tor-network map.
Tor is a system intended to provide online anonymity. Tor client software routes Internet traffic through a worldwide volunteer network of servers for concealing a user’s computer location or usage from someone conducting network surveillance or traffic analysis. Using Tor makes tracing Internet activity more difficult, and is intended to protect users’ personal freedom and their online privacy.
“Onion routing” refers to the layered nature of the encryption service: The original data are encrypted and re-encrypted multiple times, then sent through successive Tor relays, each one of which decrypts a “layer” of encryption before passing the data on to the next relay and ultimately the destination. This reduces the possibility of the original data being unscrambled or understood in transit.
I2P anonymous proxy
The I2P anonymous network (‘I2P’) is a proxy network aiming at online anonymity. It implements garlic routing, which is an enhancement of Tor’s onion routing. I2P is fully distributed and works by encrypting all communications in various layers and relaying them through a network of routers run by volunteers in various locations. By keeping the source of the information hidden, I2P offers censorship resistance. The goals
protect users’ personal freedom, privacy, and ability to conduct confidential business.
Each user of I2P runs an I2P router on their computer (node). The I2P router takes care of finding other peers and building anonymizing tunnels through them. I2P provides proxies for all protocols (HTTP, IRC, SOCKS, …).
Comparison to network address translators
The proxy concept refers to a layer 7 application in the OSI reference model. Network address translation (NAT) is similar to a proxy but operates in layer 3.
In the client configuration of layer-3 NAT, configuring the gateway is sufficient. However, for the client configuration of a layer 7 proxy, the destination of the packets that the client generates must always be the proxy server (layer 7), then the proxy server reads each packet and finds out the true destination.
Because NAT operates at layer-3, it is less resource-intensive than the layer-7 proxy, but also less flexible. As we compare these two technologies, we might encounter a terminology known as ‘transparent firewall’. Transparent firewall means that the proxy uses the layer-7 proxy advantages without the knowledge of the client. The client presumes that the gateway is a NAT in layer 3, and it does not have any idea about the inside of the packet, but through this method, the layer-3 packets are sent to the layer-7 proxy for investigation.
A DNS proxy server takes DNS queries from a (usually local) network and forwards them to an Internet Domain Name Server. It may also cache DNS records.
Some client programs “SOCKS-ify” requests, which allows adaptation of any networked software to connect to external networks via certain types of proxy servers (mostly SOCKS).
A residential proxy is an intermediary that uses a real IP address provided by an Internet Service Provider (ISP) with physical devices such as mobiles and computers of end-users. Instead of connecting directly to a server, residential proxy users connect to the target through residential IP addresses. The target then identifies them as organic internet users. It does not let any tracking tool identify the reallocation of the user. Any residential proxy can send any number of concurrent requests and IP addresses are directly related to a specific region. Unlike regular residential proxies, which hide user’s real IP address behind another IP address, rotating residential proxies, also known as backconnect proxies, conceal user’s real IP address behind a pool of proxies. These proxies switch between themselves with every session or at regular intervals.
- InterPlanetary File System – makes proxy servers redundant
- Application firewall
- Captive portal
- Distributed Checksum Clearinghouse
- Internet privacy
- Proxy list
- SMTP proxy
- SOCKS an alternative firewall traversal protocol supported by many applications
- Web accelerator which discusses host-based HTTP acceleration
- Web cache
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