nine can cause unpredictable serious and life-threatening blood and cardiovascular reactions including low platelet count and hemolytic-uremic syndrome/thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (HUS/TTP), long QT syndrome and other serious cardiac arrhythmias including torsades de pointes, blackwater fever, disseminated intravascular coagulation, leukopenia, and neutropenia. Some people who have developed TTP due to quinine have gone on to develop kidney failure. It can also cause serious hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylactic shock, urticaria, serious skin rashes, including Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, angioedema, facial edema, bronchospasm, granulomatous hepatitis, and itchiness.
The most common adverse effects involve a group of symptoms called cinchonism, which can include headache, vasodilation and sweating, nausea, tinnitus, hearing impairment, vertigo or dizziness, blurred vision, and disturbance in color perception. More severe cinchonism includes vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, deafness, blindness, and disturbances in heart rhythms. Cinchonism is much less common when quinine is given by mouth, but oral quinine is not well tolerated (quinine is exceedingly bitter and many people will vomit after ingesting quinine tablets). Other drugs, such as Fansidar (sulfadoxine with pyrimethamine) or Malarone (proguanil with atovaquone), are often used when oral therapy is required. Quinine ethyl carbonate is tasteless and odourless, but is available commercially only in Japan. Blood glucose, electrolyte and cardiac monitoring are not necessary when quinine is given by mouth.
Quinine has diverse unwanted interactions with numerous prescription drugs, such as potentiating the anticoagulant effects of warfarin.